DISCUSSION

 

 

II.
THE MEDIEVAL WEAPONS

 

5 - The Cover Arms

 

 

The Shields and Pavois
Thuẫn & Khiễn
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       The Shields « Thuẫn » (盾) and « Khiên » (搴) are used to protecting oneself against arrows and sharpened weapons on the battle fields. There is a Cover-Arm having his presence in the whole world since ancinent times and carrying a Spiritual symbolism filled with deepth and subtlety.

       The weapon which could thwart the Shields « Thuẫn », is the Pertuisane « Mâu » (矛) ; that why we have expressions like « Tư-Tưởng Mâu-Thuẫn » ("Pertuisane-Shields Thinks" = Contradictory Thinks) , « Luật Mâu-Thuẫn » ("Pertuisane-Shield Law" = Law of Contraries), etc. for designing the contraries chooses, in opposition.

       The Shields « Thuẫn » (盾) in the Đại-Việt Traditional Martial Arts of Battle Field of Đại-Việt include two main Categories including Bài (Rondache) and Khiên (Pavise) :

                      A - The Category of Rondache called « Thuẫn-Bài » ( 牌 ) ;

                      B - The Category of Pavise called « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ).

              A -The Category of Rondache called « Thuẫn-Bài » ( 盾 牌 ) or « Bàng-Bài » ( 旁 牌 )or the « Shield on the side ».

              They are made of Wicker and Rattan, in the roundness shape, holding Two Handles for bearing on one's forearm, and a Belt for bearing them on one's shoulders or on one's back. These Shields are from Two Under-Categories :

              A1 - The Under-Category of Plaited Rattan Rondachescalled« Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌).

                   This Under-Category of Rattan-Rondache is particularly used for On Foot Fighting
.

                   In the country of Đại-Việt it exists Two Classes of Rattan-Rondache « Đằng-Bài » :

                              α) The Class of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) supplied with only One Handle for holding it ;

                              β) The Class of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌) supplied with Deux Énarmes for bearing it on one's forearm and for holding it in hand.

               A1α. The Class of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌) supplied with only One Handle :

              
That is there the Class of Wicker & Rattan Rondache not well knovn in the whole country but it exists only in the Centre Đại-Việt.

              The medieval battelfields real-life experiences induce the universal Criterion of Average Dimension for Rondaches equal to 50cm +/- 1cm of Diameter.

              Therefore, this Class of Wicker & Rattan Rondache supplied only One Handle is divided into Three Kinds :


                      1 - The Kind of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » with Size Inferior of the Average :

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from Centre Đại-Việt :
The Front Side is decorated with a Large Cross
dividing the Shield into Four Quarters of Breaked Lines
realized by plaiting of Indigo stained Wicker and showing
Four great Decorative Rivets with striated Clampings
fixing the Handle on the Back Side.
This Rondache is built in the shaped basket
ang doesn't own the Central Boss (Umbo).
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Steel.
This Rondache measures 41cm diameter
.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) du Centre Đại-Việt :
The Back Side shows an unique Handle fixed
into Four Rings riveted into the Rondache,
Is is supplied with a small Cushion for protecting the fist.
It is regrettable that the Handle is lost.
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Steel.
This Rondache measures 41cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)




                      2 - The Kind of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » with Average Size :

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) du Centre Đại-Việt :
The Front Side is painted with Whitewash to prevent insects,
and showing plaited Rattan Circles with Four plaiting Wicker lines
for fixing the unique Handle.
This Rondache is built in the Cone-shaped Hat
ang doesn't own the Central Boss (Umbo).
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Rattan.
This Rondache measures 51cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) du Centre Đại-Việt :
The Back Side also painted with Whitewash
to prevent insects, shows the unique Handle attached
by Four plaiting Wicker lines.
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Rattan.
This Rondache measures 51cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)




                      3 - The Kind of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » with Size Above the Average :

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) du Centre Đại-Việt :
The Front Side is painted with Whitewash to prevent insects, and showing plaited Rattan Circles with Four plaiting Wicker lines
for fixing the unique Handle..
This Rondache is built in the Flat Bascket-Shaped (the Nia)
ang doesn't own the Central Boss (Umbo).
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Rattan.
This Rondache measures 61cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)

Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) du Centre Đại-Việt :
The Back Side also painted with Whitewash
to prevent insects, shows the unique Handle attached
by Four plaiting Wicker lines.
The Edge of the Rondache is strapped with Rattan.
This Rondache measures 61cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : Alain Trương)



               A1β. The Class of Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌) supplied with Two Handles :

              This Class of Rondache Đằng-Bà isupplied with Two Handles is the one most well known.

              Martial-Student of Vietnamese Traditional Martial Arts need to be able to know distinguishing the difference between Rattan Shield structure from Đại-Việt.during Posterior-LÊ Dynasty & Lords TRỊNH in Northern Region r(said Exterior Country) and the Rattan Shield structure from Việt-Nam of NGUYỄN Dynasty in Southern Region (said Interior Country) Period.
              in addition, he needs to know making the distinguishing one part between the two kinds of Rattan & Wicker Shield from Vietnameses in LÊ & TRỊNH Dynasties Period and those from NGUYỄN Dynasty previously quoted and the other part the distinguishing with Rattan & Wicker Shield from China :


              - The Wicker & Rattan from LÊ-TRỊNH Dynasties (1545~1787) Period :

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) specific to Đại-Việt
supplied with Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm, and on top
of that with a carved 7th Dragon-Son Nhai-Xải 捱 眥 Headed Grip.
The edge of this Rondache is circled with steel.
It measures 68,58cm (27 inches) in diameter.
( Front Side)

- LÊ-TRỊNH Dynasties ( 1545-1787) Period -

(Photo Credit : ashokaarts.com)





Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) specific to Đại-Việt
supplied with Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm,
and on top of that with a carved 7th Dragon-Son
Nhai-Xải 捱 Headed Grip.
This Conical Rondache still owns a Rectangular Ring
for attaching the Shoulder Belt.
It measures 68,58cm (27 inches) in diameter.
( Back Side)

- LÊ-TRỊNH Dynasties ( 1545-1787) Period -

(Photo Credit : ashokaarts.com)




              - The Wicker & Rattan from NGUYỄN Dynasty (1802~1945) Period :

Distinguishing Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 )
from Việt-Nam under Dynasty NGUYỄN (1802-1945) Period,
with a decoration of 7th Dragon-Son Nhai-Xải 捱 眥 Head.
in front view, holding in his mouth the Imperial Seal.
( Front Side)

- NGUYỄN Dynasty ( 朝 1802-1945) Period -

(Photo Credit : mandarinmansion.com)

Distinguishing Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 )
from Việt-Nam under Dynasty NGUYỄN (1802-1945) Period,
having only Two Handles in the Back Side but no Grip
like in the Model from Đại-Việt.
(Back Side showing the missing Handle)

- NGUYỄN Dynasty ( 朝 1802-1945) Period -

(Photo Credit : mandarinmansion.com)



Distinguishing Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 )
from Việt-Nam of NGUYỄN Dynasty (1802-1945) Period,
made of plaited wicker & attan covered of leather and lacqured with a decoration of 7th Dragon-Son Nhai-Xải 捱 眥 Head.
in front view, holding in his mouth the Imperial Seal.
This Rondache measures 65cm (25 1/2 inches) in diameter.
- Front Side -

- NGUYỄN Dynasty ( 朝 1802-1945) Period -

(Photo Credit : onlinegalleries.com)

Distinguishing Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 )
from Việt-Nam of NGUYỄN Dynasty (1802-1945) Period,
with a decoration of 7th Dragon-Son Nhai-Xải 捱 眥 Head.
in front view, holding in his mouth the Imperial Seal.
This Rondache measures 65cm (25 1/2 inches) in diameter.
- Front Side -

- NGUYỄN Dynasty ( 朝 1802-1945) Period -

(Photo Credit : onlinegalleries.com)

 

              - On the material plan, the distinguishing sign of Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from Đại-Việt that any country in the world owns is as following : In addition of Two Handles (Énarmes) it exists still one Transversal Grip.

The distinguishing sign of the Đại-Việt Rattan Shield « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) :
In addition of the Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm, there is
an carved Dragon-Son (the 7th Son of the Dragon) Nhai-Xải 捱 Headed Grip.


- LÊ-TRỊNH Dynasties ( 1545-1787) Period -

(Photo Credit : ashokaarts.com)



              - On the historic plan, this transversal Grip attached to one of Two Handles was an invention of Ancients from Đại-Việt. Well later,in the Enperor Càn-Long Dynasty (1735~1736) of QING period, during their uprising for « Over-throwing the QING and Restoring the MING », the men of Thiên-Địa-Hội (天地會 Tiandihui) had gone to Việt-Nam. They had knew this Rattan Shield Model « Đại-Việt Đằng-Bài » ( 大 越 藤 牌 ) from Posterior-LÊ Dynasty & Lords TRỊNH (said Exterior Country) having Two Handles and a transversal Grip (Cf. Photo above) and they had handed down it in China.
              So, the men in the autoproclaimed State « Tai Ping Tian-Guo » (大 平 天 國 ) (that Westerners called them "Tai-Ping Boxers" ) had inspired themselves also this Đại-Việt Rattan Rondache ( 大 越 藤 牌 ) in order to create a new category of Rattan Shield in 19th century
to wage war as below :

              - The Wicker & Rattan from QING Dynasty (1644~1912) Period :

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
with as decoration the character Vương = Royal (王),
considered as used by The Qing Dynasty
« Tigerman Troops » in 19th century.

- Front Side -

- QING Dynasty ( 朝 1644-1912) Period -

(Crédit Photo : Pitt Rivers Museum)

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
considered as used by The Qing Dynasty
« Tigerman Troops » in 19th century,

having Two Handles and a Grip inspired by the
Đại-Việt model without owning the same quality.
- Back Side -

- QING Dynasty ( 朝 1644-1912) Period -

(Crédit Photo : Pitt Rivers Museum)



Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
with as decoration the character Wang = Royal (王),
considered as used by fighters of « Tai Ping Tian-Guo »
in 19th century (1851~1864)
.
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : mandarinmansion.com)

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
considered as used by fighters of « Tai Ping Tian-Guo »
in 19th century (1851~1864)
,
having Two Handles and a Grip inspired by the
Đại-Việt model without owning the same quality.
- Back Side -

(Photo Credit : mandarinmansion.com)

 

        In the Books like « Trương-Hiệp Trạng-Nguyên » (張 協 狀 元) at the SONG Dynasty (960 - 1279) Period, then Võ-Bí-Chi Wu Bei Zhi 武備志 from Mao Nguyên Nghi 茅 元 仪 (1594-1640) writen in 240 Volumes, 10.405 Pages at the MING Dynasty (1368~1644) and until in the Book « Kiên Hồ Tập » (肩 乎 集) at the QiNG Dynasty Period, there is no way meant mention of this Rondache having Two Handles and a transversal Grip but only those having Two Handles :


Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
having Two Handles but mo transversal Grip.

- MING Dynasty ( 明 朝 1368-1644) Period -

(Photo Credit : Võ Bị Chí - Wu Bei Zhi 武備志)

 

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
having Two Handles but mo transversal Grip.

- SONG Dynasty ( 宋朝 960-1279) Period -

(Photo Credit : Trương-Hiệp Trạng-Nguyên 張 協 狀 元)


Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China,
with as decoration the character Vương = Royal (王),
having Two Handles but no transversal Grip.

- QING Dynasty (清 朝 1644-1912) Period -

(Photo Credit : Kiên Hồ Tập - Jian Hu Ji 肩 乎 集)

 

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 )
having Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm
but does not owning a Grip like the Đại-Việt Shield model.
(Reconstructed for kung-Fu Drill Halls)

- Present Period -

(Photo Credit : Wing Lam Enterprises)


Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from MING Period
with only Two Handles still in use in the Shield Dance
at Nantang Village.
China - Province of Yongxin

(Photo Credit : yuku.com)


Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from MING Period
with only Two Handles still in use in the Shield Dance
at Nantang Village.
China - Province of Yongxin

(Photo Credit : yuku.com)





Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China.

- QING Dynasty (清 朝 1644-1912) Period -

(Crédit Photo : Zemanek-Münster)

Large Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » ( 藤 牌 ) from China.

- QING Dynasty (清 朝 1644-1912) Period -

(Photo Credit : liveauctioneers.com)




Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌) from China
holding Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm.

- QING Dynasty (清 朝 1644-1912) Period -
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : pinterest.com)

 

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌) from China
holding Two Handles for bearing it on one's forearm

- QING Dynasty (清 朝 1644-1912) Period -
- Back Side -

(Photo Credit : pinterest.com)


Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌) from Western Tibet,
reinforced by crimping of Iron Struts, often considered
erronemously as being a Chinese Shield.

(Photo Credi : pinterest.com)

Rattan Rondache « Đằng-Bài » (藤 牌) from Western Tibet
reinforced by crimping of Iron Struts, often considered
erronemously as being a Chinese Shield.

(Photo Credi : metmuseum.org)


              A2 - The Under-Category of the Wooden Shields called « Mộc-Bài » ( 木 牌 ) that means the « Wooden Rondaches » :

              These Wooden Rondaches « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) often called succinctly by "Mộc" (Wood), are frequently covered with Boiled Leather and particularly in use in the Cavalry as well as in the lnfantry.

Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) used in the Cavalry.

- MING Dynasty ( 明 朝 1368-1644) -


(Photo Credit : Ebay.com)

Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) used in the Infantry.

- TANG Dynasty (唐 朝 618-907) -


(Photo Credit : Dragon's Armory)



              But over all thiese Wooden Rondaches covered with Boiled Leather are used in the Infantry for arranging warriors in battle order :

The Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) supplied with Two Grips from TANG Dynasty (漢朝 209 BC ~ 220 AD) Period
is still used in nowadays in the scenes of Pitched Battles throughout the movie.
However, this «Wooden Rondache decorated with repoussé Leather » is replaced
by the « Moulded and painted Plastic Rondache ».

(Photo Credit : Dragon's Armory)

 

         The Model from the Under-Category of Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) covered with distinguishing Lacquered Buffalo Hide of Đại-Việt from Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period had bequeathed to us his influence on very numerous tangible objets on Vietnamese Lands, in this instance that are Shaped Roudness Shields (Rondaches) on highlands of the centre and the northern regions.
         It's truthly regrettable that this cultural heritage did not benefited from a careful and serious administrative preservation ; that why these Đại-Việt Rondaches were sold out to foreign countries via high plateaux of Việt-Nam under the names as « Shields from Việt-Laos Border Regions » or well
« Shields from Southern Laos Regions », ...etc.


Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide,
reinforced with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Vietnamese Sun Symbol.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -

(Photo Credit : Musée d'Angoulême_Hubert de Vries)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide,
reinforced with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Vietnamese Sun Symbol.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -

(Photo Credit : Musée d'Angoulême_Hubert de Vries)




Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide,
reinforced with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -

(Photo Credit : vikingsword.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide,
reinforced with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
This Rondache measures 47cm in diameter.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -
(Front Side)

(Photo Credit : ashokaarts.com)




Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Concave Surface.
This Rondache measures 52,5cm in diameter
and 11cm in concavity.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -

(Photo Credit : farrowfineart.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
This Rondache measures 52,5cm in diameter
and 11cm in convexity.
(Back Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : farrowfineart.com)





Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Concave Surface.
This Rondache measures 57cm in diameter
and 12cm in concavity.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : swordsantiqueweapons.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
This Rondache measures 57cm in diameter
and 12cm in convexity.
(Back Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : swordsantiqueweapons.com)




Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Concave Surface.
This Rondache measures 62cm in diameter
and 12cm in concavity.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : swordsantiqueweapons.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
This Rondache measures 62cm diameter
and 12cm in convexity.
(Back Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : swordsantiqueweapons.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Concave Surface.
This Rondache measures 53,3cm in diameter
and 11cm in concavity.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : vikingsword.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, reinforced
with rattan along the edge, having the distinguishing Front Side decorated with Shining Sun Symbol.
and a Convex Surface.
This Rondache measures 53,3cm diameter
and 11cm in convexity.
(Back Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : vikingsword.com)




Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide,
lacquered in Black with no decoration apart from
the distinguishing double concentric seamed line as
in other Dại-Việt Shields above.
This Rondache measures 48,26cm in diameter
and 11cm in concavity.
(Front Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : joelouxasianandtribalart.com)



Wooden Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) from Đại-Việt,
made of Timber, covered with Buffalo Hide, lacquered in Black,
with the Back Side showing specific Two Handles
and a Convex Surface of same design
as in the Shields Models quoted previously.
This Rondache measures 48,26cm in diameter
and 11cm in convexity.
(Back Side)

- Posterior-LÊ Dynasty (1428-1789) Period -


(Photo Credit : joelouxasianandtribalart.com)



         It exists in Việt-Nam 54 Ethnics Groups with so much linguistic and cultural diversites and yet in nowadays, we find still Shields in the identical design from a same model. We can so say without any exageration that these Wooden Rondaches « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌) quoted previously are precisely the Enblem of Đại-Việt Nation Unity in the construction and the protection of Kingdom.


             B - The Category of Pavise called « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( 盾 搴 )
             They are made of Wood (lacquered or inlayed with Turtle Scales, or well covered with Buffalo leather), or still of Metal. These Shields are from Four Classes :

                   B1 - The Class of Pavise in the Roundness Shape :

                   This Class of Pavise was reserved to the use in Infantry and in Cavalry ; it owns Two Handles for bearing on one's forearm, and a Belt for bearing them on one's shoulders or on one's back when it's about the Cavalry.


Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Thailand, made in Iron repoussé, with Siamese Decoration .
It is supplied with Two Handles and measures 60cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : krabi-krabong-equipment)


Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Thailand, made in Iron repoussé, with Siamese Decoration .
It is supplied with Two Handles and measures 60cm diameter.

(Photo Credit : krabi-krabong-equipment)



Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Tibet, covered with Cow Leather and riveted,
decorated with an Imperial Dragon finely engraved.
It is often considered erronemously as from China
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : en.51bidlive.com)

 

Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Tibet, upholstered with Cow Leather and riveted.
It is often considered erronemously as from China
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : en.51bidlive.com)


Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Japan, covered with Leather and riveted
according to the Tibet Model. and having a Front Side
decorated with a Lion Head in place of the Shield Boss (Umbo)
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : wordpress.com)

Pavise « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) in the Roundness shape
from Korea, reconstructed according to the
Book Võ-Bị Chí Wu Bei Zhi 武備志 of MING Dynasty
- YI-Choson Dynasty (1392–1910) Period -
- Front Side -

(Photo Credit : sojuandi.blogspot.fr)



Martial Student was training for various Equestrian Figures
forms of at indoor arena with the Pavise-Shield wielding
on Horseback.


(Photo Credit : Bình-Định Sa-Liong-Cương)

Martial Student was training for various Equestrian Figures
forms of at indoor arena with the Pavise-Shield wielding
on Horseback.


(Photo Credit : Bình-Định Sa-Liong-Cương)

 

Demonstration of Collective Combat with Sword and Pavise
by the Đại-Việt Medieval Martial Arts Section from
Bình-Định SA-LONG-CƯƠNG FRANCE,
on saturday 2-06-2007, in la Cour Duranti, during the
« Hanoï's Cultural Week » - organized by
Toulouse City Council and Việt-Nam UNESCO

(from 30-05-2007 to 3-06-2007).


(Photo Credit : Bình-Định Sa-Liong-Cương)

.



Demonstration of Collective Combat with Sword and Pavise
by the Đại-Việt Medieval Martial Arts Section from
Bình-Định SA-LONG-CƯƠNG FRANCE,
on saturday 2-06-2007, in la Cour Duranti, during the
« Hanoï's Cultural Week » - organized by
Toulouse City Council and Việt-Nam UNESCO

(from 30-05-2007 to 3-06-2007).


(Photo Credit : Bình-Định Sa-Liong-Cương)




Stream of Pavise-Shields « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) from Võ-Trận Đại-Việt School System
at Toulouse - Haute-Garonne (France)..
during the « Cultural Week of Hà-Nội » in the year 2007
organized by Toulouse City Council and Việt-Nam UNESCO

(Photo Credit : Bình-Định Sa-Liong-Cương)


B2 - The Class of Pavise in the Ovale Shape :

                   That is the kind of distinguishing Pavise from Đại-Việt in the TRẦN Dynasty (1226-1400) Period : It is
The Pavise Holding Two Handles in the Shield Back Side for bearing on one's forearm, and a Belt for bearing them on one's shoulders or on one's back. This Pavise in tyhe Ovale Shape is specially in use for Cavalry



Đại-Việt Wooden Pavise « Mộc-Khiên » ( 木 搴)
in the Ovale Shape, covered with Buffalo Leather
and decorated with the Shininge Sun Symbol.

- Trần Dynasty (1226-1400) Period -

(Photo Credit : Nguyễn-Ngọc Phương-Đông)

 




Buffalo Leather Covered Wooden Pavois « Khiên » ()
used in the Cavalry

- Đại-Việt - Trần Dynasty (1226-1400) Period -

(Photo Credit : Nguyễn-Ngọc Phương-Đông)


However this drawing ilustrating well the armoured warrior with metal mask
is inaccurate for the Spear Blade as well as the Armour and the Caparison



Đại-Việt Wooden Oval Shaped Pavise « Mộc-Khiên » ( 木 搴)
covered with Leather and reinforced by crimping of Steel..
The decorative Plaque of the Umbo is missing.


- TRẦN Dynasty (1226-1400) Period -

(Photo Credit : hinhanhvietnam.com)

 

 

Đại-Việt Wooden Pavise « Mộc-Khiên » ( 木 搴)
in the Ovale Shape, covered with Buffalo Leather
and decorated with a Sunshine Symbol

- Trần Dynasty (1226-1400) Period -

(Photo Credit : National Museum of Việt-Nam)



Pavois de Bois « Mộc-Khiên » (木 ) du Japon, de Forme Ovale et dont la Face Recto est décorée du
Văn-Sở ( 紋所 Monkoro), encore appelé
Gia-Văn (家紋 Kamon) traditionnel
cependant un dessin d'une Paire de Thoa ( 釵 Sai )
lui est ajouté

(Photo Credit : shorinryupr.com)



Le maniement du Pavois de Bois « Mộc-Khiên » (木 )
de Forme Ovale fut présenté par le Maître Japonais
Shinken Taira à sa Salle d'Armes de Kobudo d'Okinawa.

(Photo Credit : shorinryupr.com)






                   B3 - The Class of Pavois in the Oblong Shape :

                   That is about the Class of Shield very in use in South-Eastern Asia, and it holds only a Single Handle for bearing it.

                   However, this Class of Pavise in the Oblong shape from Đại-Việt owns a distinguishing point which is in addition of a Great Transversal Handle fixed in the Heart of the Back Side, it has a Little Handle situated on the Chief of Pavise with many most unusual utilities.

                   This Oblong shaped Pavois, is often reserved for Foot-Soldiers in order to stop opposite armies overwhelming in their attack. By consequent, Warrior using this kind of Oblong shaped Pavois need to own solid Postures techiques in order to wage war with efficiency. And then this kind of Pavise is more difficult to use than other Shields because the Warrior risk to injure oneslf his shins with his own Oblong Pavise whom the wielding - we must well say it - is hjigher than other Shields and Rondaches.



Wooden Pavois « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) from Đại-Việt
in Oblong Shape, Black lacquered and Gilded,
decorating a Dragon struggling with Clouds.
(Front Side)


(Pavise of the Đại-Việt Imperial Guard)

- LÝ Dynasty (1010-1225) Period -


Wooden Pavois « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) from Đại-Việt
in Oblong Shape. The Back Side is painted in Red,
owning a Great Transversal Median Handle and
Two Small Handles at tje Chief and the Base.
(Back Side showing the distinguishing Three Handles of Pavise)

(Pavise of the Đại-Việt Imperial Guard)

- LÝ Dynasty (1010-1225) Period -

 

Wooden Pavois « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) from Đại-Việt,
carved of 7th Dragon-Son wraping itself
around the Chief and the Base
with a Taoist Mandala at the Fess Point.
(Front Side)


- LÝ Dynasty (1010-1225) Period -

 

Wooden Pavois « Thuẫn-Khiên » ( ) from Đại-Việt.
The Back Side is painted in Purpure (Crimson), owning
a Great Median Transversal Handle
and a Small Grip at the Chef.
(Back Side showing the Missing of Small Grip)


- LÝ Dynasty (1010-1225) Period -

 

                   B4 - The Class of Pavise in the polygonal shape called « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) or the « Pavíse having Several Angles ».

This kind of Shield Polygonal Shaped Pavois includes several models and it is divided into Two Under-Classes :

                   α) The Under-Class of Polygonal shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved fo One Warrior ;

                   β) The Under-Class of Polygonal Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved for Several Warriors.

                   B4α - The Under-Class of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved for only One Warrior :

              The antique battelfields real-life experiences had induced Two Genres of this Under-Class of Polygonal Shaped Pavise :

                             α1 - The Genre of Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with One Handle ;

                             α2 - The Genre of Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with Two Handles.

                   α1 - The Genre of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with One Handle :

               This Genre of Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 牽) includes numerous Shields of various forms and divides itself into Three Species :

                             α1γ - The Specie of Pavise supplied with One Handle and a Very Average Size ;

                             α1
δ - The Genre of Pavise supplied with One Handle and an Average Size ;

                      α1
ε - The Genre of Pavise supplied with a Size Bigger than Average Size.

                    α1γ - The Specie of Pavise supplied with One Handle and a Very Average Size :
                   That are Polygonal Pavises whom the shape is being out of the ordiinary :

Polygonal shaped Pavois « Turtle Shell Shield »
« Quy-Giáp-Khiên » ( 龜 甲 搴)
(Bach Side)

- Western HAN Dynasty Period (206 BC - 9 AD) -

Polygonal shaped Pavois « Turtle Shell Shield »
« Quy-Giáp-Khiên » ( 龜 甲 搴)
(Back Side showing the single handle)

- Western HAN Dynasty Period (206 BC - 9 AD) -




Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Japan,
designed for defending Samurai on horseback
againts Teppo ( 鉄 炮 - Flintlock Pistol )
(Front Side)

- Edo Period (1603~1868) -


(Photo Credit : wordpress.com)

Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Japan,
designed for defending Samurai on horseback
againts Teppo ( 鉄 炮 - Flintlock Pistol )
(Back Side showing the Only Handle)

- Edo Period (1603~1868) -


(Photo Credit : wordpress.com)


                   α1δ - The Specie of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with One Handle and an Average Size :

                   This Specie of Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 牽) supplied with only a Single Handle and Reserved to the Use For One Warrior quoted above was the best designed for battlefields in Warring Stades period (5 av.JC - 221 av.JC) and in TẦN (QIN) Dynasty period (221 BC - 206 av.JC).

Polygonal shaped Pavois « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 ) from China.
(Front Side)


- Warring States Period (5 BC - 221 BC) -

Polygonal shaped Pavois « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 ) from China.
(Back Side showing the Unique Vertical Handle)

- Warring States Period (5 BC - 221 BC) -

Polygonal shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 ) from China.
(Front Side)


- TẦN (QIN) Dynasty Period (221 BC - 206 BC) -

 

Polygonal shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 ) from China.
(Front Side)


- CHU Dynasty Period (周朝 1122 BC - 249 BC) -


Rectangular shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 )
from
Thailand, in Forme Rectangulaire Concave,
lacquered with Golden Decoration and supplied
with One Vertical Median Handle.
(Front Side)

- Near-Contemporary Period -

Rectangular shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 )
from
Thailand, in Forme Rectangulaire Concave,
lacquered with Golden Decoration and supplied
with One Vertical Median Handle.

( Siamese Fighter in guard with his Rectangular shaped Pavise )

 

                   α1ε- The Specie of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with One Handle and with a Size Bigger than the Average :

                   In the reality of nowadays, it is truthly regrettable that the Tradition inherent in the wielding of this Polygonal shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » (稜 搴) is not still handed down in Hall Drills from Việt-Nam, but it only still leaves his stamps in the « Warrior Dance of Eight Ranks of Eight Mimes » at the old Imperial Capital of Huế in Việt-Nam.

Polygonal Pavise still used in Warrior Dance of Eight Ranks of Eight Mimes
at the old Imperial Capital of Huế in Việt-Nam.
(Photo taken in 2002)




Wooden Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Thailand,
in Shaped Concave Rectangular Trapezium
and laquered with gilded decorations.
(Front Side)
(Pavise of Siamese Royal Guard)

(Photo Credit : vikingsword.com)


Wooden Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Thailand,
in Shaped Concave Rectangular Trapezium.
The Back Side is painted in Red and supplied
with an unique great median vertical Handle.
(Back Side)
(Pavise of Siamese Royal Guard)

(Photo Credit : vikingsword.com)


Stream of Polygonal Shaped Pavises « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴)
during the Jidai Matsuri 時代祭 (Festivals of The Era )
in Japan on the year of 2009.

(Photo Credit : proboards.com)



Stream of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴)
during the Jidai Matsuri 時代祭 (Festivals of The Era )
in Japan on the year of 2004.
(Front Side Shield without Decoration)

(Photo Credit : proboards.com)

Stream of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴)
during the Jidai Matsuri 時代祭 (Festivals of The Era )
in Japan on the year of 2004.
(Back Side Shield showing the Unique Handle)

(Photo Credit : proboards.com)




Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Korea
reconstructed according to the Swallow Tail Model
« Yến Vỹ Bài » (Yan Wei Pai 燕尾牌),

- YI-Choson Dynasty (1392–1910) Period -

(Photo Credit : pbase.com)

Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from China
decorated with the character Wang = Royal ( 王 ) and built according to the inverted Swallow Tail Model
« Yến Vỹ Bài » (Yan Wei Pai 燕尾牌) .

- Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) Period -

(Photo Credit : pinterest.com)

                   α2 - The Genre of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with Two Handles :

              This Genre of Pygonal Pavise includes also Shields with various Forms and divides itself into Two Species :

            α2γ - The Specie of Pavise supplied with Two Handles and an Average Size ;

                        α2
δ - The Specie of Pavise supplied with Two Handles and a Size Bigger than the Average Size.

                  α2γ - The Specie of Pavise supplied with Two Handles and an Average Size :

              Thiis Polygonal Shaped Pavise Shield « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with Two Handles and an Average Size had perfected with many effort by the Ancients one part from Đại-Việt country and other part by those from Ai-Lao (Laos) country to make a Specie specific Shield-Pavisec from each nation that any country does not own it..

             Concerning the Đại-Việt,, after an in-depth research throughout medieval battlefields tha Ancients had perfected a Specie of Polygonal Shaped Pavise Shield « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) of covered with Bufalo leather reinforced by crimping of Steel, extremly dreadful. That is a specific Pavise from Đại-Việt, available for using in the Cavalry as well as in the Infantry, according to the tactical of Pitched Battles.


Distinguishingl Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Đại-Việt

- LÝ Dynasty (1010-1225) Period -

( Popular Imagery - Đông-Hồ Village)




The Scimitar using together with the distinguishing
Shield-Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Đại-Việt.

(Photo Credit : vndefence.info)

- My Scimitar still exists in NationaL Museum
but now, where is it so my distinguishing Shield-Pavise
« Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Đại-Việt ?

( Popular Imagery - Đông-Hồ Village)


               As for Aii-Lao (Laos) country, the Ancients had also perfected a Specie of the distinguishing wooden Shield-Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) , from the transformation of he Under-Category of Wooden-Rondache « Mộc-Bài » (木 牌), which doesn't yield in nothingi on the plan of dreadful efficiency.

Distinguishingl Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Ai-Lao
created by transformation from Shiieldl-Rondache called
« Mộc-Bài » (木 牌), having the Front Side crimped with Iron
and decorated with Nine Rivets.
(Front Side)

(Photo Credit : pinterest.com)


Distinguishingl Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Ai-Lao
created by transformation from Shiieldl-Rondache called
« Mộc-Bài » (木 牌), having the Back Side supplied
with Two solid Iron Handles.
(Backt Side)

(Photo Credit : pinterest.com)


              α2δ - The Specie of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) supplied with Two Handles and with a Size Bigger than the Average :

               This Specie includes Pavises « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) often specially reserved to On-Foot Soldiers in the tactical of Pitched Battles.


The Polygonal Pavois Lăng-Khiên supplied ưith Two Handles from MING Dynasty (明 朝 1368-1644) Period
still used in nowadays in the scenes of Pitched Battles throughout the movie.

(Photo Credit : Dragon's Armory)



The Polygonal Pavois Lăng-Khiên supplied with Two Handles from HAN Dynasty (唐 朝 618-907) Period
still used in nowadays in the scenes of Pitched Battles throughout the movie.

(Photo Credit : Dragon's Armory)



                   It has to be said that the Specie of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved to the use for only One Warrior and holding Two Handles quoted above includes very numerous Models whom the name varies according to the Morphology of the Pavois under consideration (« Wooden Tiger-Headed Pavois », « Swallow-Tailed Pavois », etc...) :

Polygonal Shaped Pavois « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 )
called « Wooden Tiger-Headed Pavois »
(Hu Tou Huo Pai 虎頭木牌).

- MING Dynasty Period (1368~1644) -

(Photo Credit : Võ Bị Thư (Wu Bei Zhi 武備志)

Polygonal Shaped Pavois « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 )
called « Swallow-Tailed Pavois »
(Yan Wei Pai 燕尾牌),

- MING Dynasty Period (1368~1644) -

(Tín-dụng Ảnh : greatmingmilitary.blogspot.com)



Unpainted Replica of Polygonal Shaped Pavois
« Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴)
called « Wooden Tiger-Headed Pavois »
(Hu Tou Huo Pai 虎頭木牌).
with its four rocket pods rotated into ready

- MING Dynasty Period (1368~1644) -

(Photo Credit : Military Museum of Chinese People's Revolution)


Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 ) from Korea reconstructed according to
the MING Shield Model.

- YI-Choson Dynasty (1392–1910) Period -

(Photo Credit : pbase.com)





                   B4β - The Class of Polygonal Shaped Pavise « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved to the use for Several Warriors :

                   It's about the Polygonal shaped Pavise of great dimensions
specially reserved for attacking and besieging or for defending ang protecting casttes and fortified towns.

                     That is precisely this Class of Polygonak Shaped Pavise of great dimensions which deserves really to be named by « Khiên » (搴) in every sense of the word « Khiên » (搴).

         When we talk about the Class of Polygonal Shaped Pavois « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) reserved to the use for Several Warriors, we can't fail to talk about the use of exceptional Pavois by Emperor Quang-Trung Nguyện-Huệ, of Tây-Sơn's Dynasty (1778-1802), in battles fighting triumphantly against Mandchus, on spring of the year 1789, throughout battles of Ngọc-Hồi, Đống-Đa and the reconquest of imperial Thăng-Long citadel .
         This sovereign ordered to put together wooden boards by crossing the way of their fibres, so as to make sixty great Shields then to plait wet grass at the front of it. He could so, under the rain of Arrows lauching by Composite Bows and the heavy fire of Mandchu Muskets, to make his shock troops - of about ten combatants for each Pavois carried - to advance inexorably into the foot of the fortified towns walls in order to pull down the entry doors and to launch attack for wiping out the invaders.

Great Shields used against Qing Manchu Armies by Tây-Sơn Combatants of rights
under the command of Emperor Quang-Trung (in Spring 1789).

(Photo Credit : nghiencuulichsu.com)

 

Pavise-Shield « Lăng-Khiên » ( 稜 搴) from Japan,
designed in Iron with Riveting in 5e century.

- Kofun Period (KofunJidai - 250~538 CN) -

(Tín-dụng Ảnh : Tokyo National Museum)

Fix Bamboo « Palisade-Shield » ( 杆 ) from Japon.
« Đông Trúc Thức Định Cố 東竹式定固 »

- Époque Edo (1603~1868) -


(Tín-dụng Ảnh : quora.com)

 

(To be continued...)

 

Committee of
VÕ-TRẬN-ĐẠI-VIỆT
Bình-Định Sa-Long-Cương
FRANCE
Martial Arts Masters

TRỊNH Quang Thắng.

 

   

 

 

 

 

                    

 

 

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